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Wood arboriculture is a technical discipline, branch of arboriculture, which deals with the creation and management of plantations of tree species aimed at the production of certain wood assortments in the maximum possible quantity.
These are generally contemporaneous and monospecific or oligospecific plantations, located on farms or agro-forestry companies on fertile, flat or slightly sloping land and in any case easily accessible by mechanical means. The purpose of wood arboriculture, unlike forestry, is the maximization of the production of the wood material, which at the time economically and commercially optimal, is totally removed.
Main cultivated species:
The wood plantations are governed by fustaia or coppice. The most used tree species in Italy are some North American conifers belonging to the genera Pinus and Pseudotsuga, among the broad-leaved trees mainly poplar and to a lesser extent other species such as eucalyptus, walnut and wild cherry, the last two considered to be valuable wood species, below is a list of the main cultivated tree species, listed in alphabetical order according to the scientific name with the common name next to it:
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Parl. (Lawson cypress)
Cryptomeria japonica Don (Crittomeria)
Pseudotsuga douglasi Carr. (= Pseudotsuga taxifolia britt.) (American scented fir or Douglasia)
Taxodium distichum Rich. (Tassodio)
Acacia sp. (Acadie)
Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Horse chestnut)
Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. (Ailanthus or Tree of Paradise)
Arbutus unedo L. (Strawberry tree)
Betula alba L. (Birch)
Celtis australis L. (Bagolaro or Spaccasassi)
Ceratonia siliqua L. (Carob tree)
Cercis siliquastrum L. (Siliquastro)
Corylus avellana L. (Hazel)
Dalbergia sp. (Rosewood)
Eucalyptus sp. (Eucalyptus)
Fagus sylvatica L. (Beech)
Paulownia sp. (Paulownia)
Populus sp. (Poplars)
Prunus avium L. (Mountain Cherry or Wild Cherry)
Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Robinia)
Salix sp. (Willow)
Tilia sp. (Linden)
Triplochiton scleroxylon (Ayous or Obeche)
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(source: Sole 24 ore Economia)
Aggregations between brands, partnerships, new purchasing centers: the risk of large-scale organized distribution (large-scale distribution) has seen a marked acceleration in recent years, both internationally and in Italy. And the operation announced last Tuesday by Conad, which will acquire almost all Auchan stores in our country – it is only the last piece of a mosaic still to be built. The real challenge for operators in the sector, however, is not played on the level of corporate structures, but on that of content: new technologies, environmental and social sustainability, the Italian nature of products, traceability and transparency. It plays on the ability of the brands to establish a new pact of trust with consumers, the theme at the heart of the 35th edition of Linkontro, the annual consumer forum organized by Nielsen Italy in Sardinia. The challenge is complex, because it is based on radically new paradigms, after the advent of e-commerce and technological innovations have undermined those in force for centuries. “The future of large-scale distribution must be imagined – says Mario Gasbarrino, CEO of Unes -. Almost like Jules Verne: even with some gambling, with proposals that could be denied ». Because the “mass market” as we have known it until yesterday does not exist and will no longer exist. “We are experiencing an epochal transition – adds Gasbarrino – and in the face of transformations of this magnitude, rationalization and concentration operations risk being an already old response”. Necessary, but not sufficient.
E-commerce, Nielsen points out, today in Italy represents 1.6% of the total value of large-scale distribution (which stands between 100 and 105 billion euros) and grew by 27.7% in the first quarter of 2019 Its diffusion has broken the traditional duopoly between the brand industry and the distributor: «The roles are mixing – observes Gasbarrino -: the producers will be able to act as distributors and vice versa, moreover the” pure players “that can do both have appeared what’s this”. Finally, the time within which I get hold of an asset becomes the discriminating variant in the choice of the product or retailer itself.
The very terrain of competition has changed, Giorgio Santambrogio, CEO of VéGé and president of ADM (Modern Distribution Association) points out: «Today competition is no longer just between brands, but at 360 degrees. It is between physical stores, but also between physical and online stores or multi-channel stores, between catering and distribution, between these and food delivery ».
Specialization, the distinction of the offer and the roots in the territory will be the elements capable of making the difference. As well as attention to sustainability, quality, transparency and product safety. For example, Nielsen certifies that, after the food boom, the world of home and personal care products also benefits from the “green” label, with a 3.1% growth in eco-sustainable products and 24% peaks, 5% for those with less plastic. While sales in the so-called Special Drug, the specialized chains, recorded a 4% increase in value. The shops will be less and will be smaller, they will be omnichannel and more specialized, more and more touch points and experiential, more and more showrooms and single-brand stores. “Those who do a little bit of everything will not resist. Whoever wins the trust of customers will win, “says the CEO of Unes. The very way of hiring them will change: if the epoch of Carosello has ended for some time, now that of Trip Advisor and influencers has also ended: the influencers of the future are called Alexa and use artificial intelligence.
This is why the road of aggregations – inevitable and necessary in a context like the Italian one, characterized by an extremely fragmented distribution system, with numerous regional operators deeply rooted in their territories – alone is not enough. “To feel good on the market you need to have a distinctive and interesting proposal for the customer – says Marco Bordoli, CEO of Crai Secom: -. The focus is on the product, not on corporate transactions. Our product is the shop and we must make it innovative, so that the customer can choose it ». According to Lucio Fochesato, general manager of Despar Italia, “the future of large-scale distribution passes through stores capable of exciting the customer, such as the one that will inaugurate in a few weeks in Carpi, which will represent a new concept of superstore – he explains -. Always in the logic of being close to the territory and to values such as quality, safety, innovation and environmental sustainability “.
However, operations such as that announced by Conad are destined to leave their mark on the Italian distribution market. “A domino effect is likely to trigger with further movements by operators – speculates Nielsen Italia’s Retailer services director, Romolo de Camillis -. Moreover, I think it is inevitable to go towards a scenario in which the number of brands will decrease, but I do not expect the intervention of some giant of distribution from abroad, which will buy small Italian stores. Rather, the major national brands will move, able to bring together the smaller or troubled ones, harmonize the offer and help them develop. ” A future therefore made up of concentration of signs, but always in a context of widespread entrepreneurship, with many small and medium-sized operators linked to the territory.
Even according to Marco Pedroni, president of Coop Italia, «it did not end here: in a distribution context like the Italian one, made up of regional realities and associated chains, a process of rationalization is natural, driven by the fact that the market no longer grows. I think that in the future there will be a selection of operators ». The large-scale consumer market in large-scale distribution seems to have recovered, with a 2% growth in value sales in the first four months of 2019 compared to the same period last year, according to Nielsen surveys, and an estimate of + 1.5% by year end. However, traditional distribution has been struggling and for years, with the same network, it has not grown, undermined by several factors: the competition of e-commerce and discount stores on the one hand; the threat of an increase in VAT and Sunday closures on the other. An unsustainable scenario for a pulverized system like the Italian one. This is why «we are witnessing an accelerated domino process of aggregations and acquisitions – notes Santambrogio, which plans new operations on the Italian market in the coming months -. And this is positive, but it seems to me that sometimes things go a little confusing. The fear is that daughter unions may occur not of real common needs, but only of the need to come together to make critical mass. Unification rather than partnership ». With the risk of a flattening of the offer and a loss of those specializations which are an important lever to keep up with the competition.